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8-GA-MS-PS-4.e – Jamal (relationship between density of media and wave behavior)

GRADE: Middle (6-8), 8  |  TIME: You will need between 7 -10 Days to complete the entire lesson. This is assuming that you have class periods between 45-60 minutes.

OVERVIEW

The media (i.e. solid, liquid, gas) that a wave travels through effects the speed at which waves travel. The effect that the media has depends on the type of wave that is being evaluated. Students will evaluate the effect that the media has on both light and sound waves. This will be done both qualitatively and quantitatively. Students will look at tables, charts, and diagrams to analyze changes in speed in different media by light and sound waves. Students should make the connection between this phenomenon and refraction.

DISCIPLINE: Physical Sciences
TOPIC: Waves: Light and Sound
GA STANDARDS(GSES): Georgia Standards of Excellence (GSE) DRAFT, S8P4. Sound and Electromagnetic Radiation, e. Properties of Sound
NGSS CORE IDEA: PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer, PS4.A Wave Properties, PS4.B Electromagnetic Radiation, Physical Science
PRACTICE: Developing & Using Models
CROSSCUTTING CONCEPTS: Structure and Function

Standards

Georgia Standards of Excellence in Science (GSES):

S8P4. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to support the claim that electromagnetic (light) waves behave differently than mechanical (sound) waves.

e.  Analyze and interpret data to predict patterns in the relationship between the density of media and wave behavior (i.e., speed)

NGSS Standard:

Performance Expectations
Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. (MS-PS4-2)

 

Clarification Statement:
Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.

 

Assessment Boundary:
Assessment is limited to qualitative applications pertaining to light and mechanical waves.

Science and Engineering Practices
Developing and Using Models
Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena.

 

Disciplinary Core Idea(s)
PS4.A: Wave Properties

  • A sound wave needs a medium through which it travels

PS4.B:  Electromagnetic Radiation

  • When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the
  • The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path
  • A wave model of light is useful for explaining brightness, color, and the frequency-dependent bending of light at a surface between
  • However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound or water

 

Crosscutting Concept(s)

Structure and Function
Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.

NGSS Evidence Statement:
Observable features of the student performance by the end of the course:
1.  Components of the model
a.  Students develop a model to make sense of a given phenomenon. In the model, students identify the relevant components, including:
i.      Type of wave.
1.   Matter waves (e.g., sound or water waves) and their amplitudes and frequencies.
2.   Light, including brightness (amplitude) and color (frequency).
ii.     Various materials through which the waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted.
iii.    Relevant characteristics of the wave after it has interacted with a material (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength).
iv.    Position of the source of the wave.
2.  Relationships
a.  In the model, students identify and describe* the relationships between components, including:
i.      Waves interact with materials by being:
1.   Reflected.
2.   Absorbed.
3.   Transmitted.
ii.      Light travels in straight lines, but the path of light is bent at the interface between materials when it travels from one material to another.
iii.     Light does not require a material for propagation (e.g., space), but matter waves do require a material for propagation.
3.  Connections
a.  Students use their model to make sense of given phenomena involving reflection, absorption, or transmission properties of different materials for light and matter waves.
b.  Students use their model about phenomena involving light and/or matter waves to describe* the differences between how light and matter waves interact with different materials.
c.  Students use the model to describe* why materials with certain properties are well-suited for particular functions (e.g., lenses and mirrors, sound absorbers in concert halls, colored light filters, sound barriers next to highways).
Other Standards:

N/A

Framework

Overview

The media (i.e. solid, liquid, gas) that a wave travels through effects the speed at which waves travel.  The effect that the media has depends on the type of wave that is being evaluated.  Students will evaluate the effect that the media has on both light and sound waves.  This will be done both qualitatively and quantitatively.  Students will look at tables, charts, and diagrams to analyze changes in speed in different media by light and sound waves.   Students should make the connection between this phenomenon and refraction.

 

Elicit Questions:

How does the media in which a wave travels effect the speed of sound through that media?

How does the media in which a wave travels effect the speed of light through that media?

How are sound and light waves affected differently by the type of media that each travels through?

 

Engage: Students will observe a pencil in a beaker of water. They will draw what they see and then answer three probing questions.

 

Explore:  Students will do a lab using dominoes to simulate the differences in the speed of waves in different media.

 

Engineer:  Students will build a light shielding device to reduce light pollution.  (See Environmental Stewardship for details and handouts)

 

Explain:   Students will go through a power point to review waves and apply the principles of wave speed to medium.

 

Environmental Stewardship: Students will design devices that minimize the amount of light pollution using prior knowledge from the explore portion of the lesson.  Students will use shielding similar to that modeled in the station lab (explore).  This is intended to be used as application.

 

Evaluate: The first formative assessment is a multiple choice quiz and the other quiz is a kahoot.  The summative assessment is an open response that requires students to graph, analyze, and explain data.

 

Extend:   Students will use a simulation to measure the speed of light in different materials.

 

 

G-R-C

Gather:

  • Obtaining Information
  • Asking Questions/Defining Problems
  • Planning & Carrying Out Investigations
  • Using Models to Gather Data
  • Using Mathematics/Computational Thinking

Reason:

  • Evaluating Information
  • Analyzing Data
  • Using Mathematics/Computational Thinking
  • Developing Evidence
  • Constructing Explanations/Solving Problems
  • Using Models to Predict & Develop Evidence

Communicate:

  • Communicating Information
  • Arguing from Evidence (written & oral)
  • Using Models to Communicate

Engineer

Engineer:

See Environmental Stewardship:  Students are to design a light shielding device.

Engage

Engage (20-30 Minutes)

The teacher will set up a beaker filled with water with a pencil placed in the beaker.  Students will sketch what they see.  Post these Questions on the board.

  1. What do you observe about the pencil in the water?
  2. What is this wave behavior called?
  3. Why do you think this happens?

After students answer the questions, they will discuss their assumptions with you and the class.

Elicit Questions

Essential Questions: (10 Minutes)

How does the media in which a wave travels effect the speed of sound through that media?

How does the media in which a wave travels effect the speed of light through that media?

 

Driving Question:

How are sound and light waves affected differently by the type of media that each travels through?

Explain

Explain (45-60 Minutes)

Students will use a Power point to write notes.  This should always be done in the context of the activities that preceded the Explain portion.

Power Point:
Power Point

Evaluate

Evaluate (15 Minutes)

Formative Assessment:
Students will complete a short multiple choice quiz to check for basic understanding.  They will also complete a kahoot quiz.

Kahoot Link:  https://play.kahoot.it/#/k/bf70b007-05a0-4aeb-ae4d-e271563c3d93

Summative Assessment: This is an open ended assessment that requires students to analyze.

Assessment Handouts:
Pre and Post Test
Summative Assessment
Summative Assessment Key
Light Shielding Rubric

Explore

Explore (60 Minutes)
Purpose:  This investigation will determine whether the speed of sound is affected as it travels through a solid, liquid, or gas.

Objective:  Explain the media a waves travels in affects its speed.

Handouts:
Wave Speed (student handout)
Wave Speed (answer key)

Extend

Extend (60-75 Minutes)

Purpose:
To manipulate light waves using a simulation that models the change in speed of light as it moves from one medium to another.

The Activity:
Students will use a simulation to collect data and information and then answer questions.

Handout:
Bending Light Lab

 

Supplies and Prep

Elicit Questions:
  • 1 Board/Poster for posting questions. Another option would be to use the interactive whiteboard.
Engage: Materials for the Teacher Demo
  1. Probing Questions posted on board
  2. 1 Glass Beaker, Waver, and a Pencil
    Explore:
  • Sound Energy in Motion Lab: Dominoes
  1. Activity worksheets for each student and answer key for teacher.
  2. Supplies per Station:
  3. Box of dominoes
  4. Smooth surface
  5. Ruler or yardstick
  6. Stopwatch or a watch with a second hand.
  7. Calculator
Prep: I recommend that you have enough stations for groups of three or less.  Engineer:
  • See Environmental Stewardship Project
  Explain:
  • Materials
  1. Waves Power Point:
  2. Computer
  3. Projector or Interactive Whiteboard
  Environmental Stewardship Project: Light Shielding and Pollution
  1. Handout with Teacher Guide:
  2. “Mini-lights” (such as the Mini Maglite flashlight), one for each group of students
  3. City mat, one for each group of students see pdf.
  4. Play-Doh (enough to make a base for the flashlight for each group, plus extra
  5. Miscellaneous materials such as straws, Popsicle sticks, tape (assorted kinds), aluminum foil, paper (assorted kinds), wooden skewers, paper/plastic cups (assorted sizes), etc.
  6. Lab notebook or worksheets for students.
  Evaluate: FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
  • One copy of the formative assessment and key (for teacher/last page)
  • A computer, projector, and students will need electronic devices to take the quiz (i.e. cell phone, ipad, etc.)
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
  • Summative Assessment Key/Rubric:
  • Rubric for Summative (to be used to measure mastery of student for all activities)
  Extend: Experiment
  • Materials:
    1. Computer with internet
    2. Handout
  Group Lesson:
  • Light Wave Quick Lab
  • Sound Wave Quick Lab
  • Put students in groups of 2 or 3
  • Supplies
    1. Light Wave Lab Supplies (per group):  Flashlight, Plastic Cup/Beaker, Water, Flat Desk
    2. Sound Wave Lab Supplies (per group):  Plastic Cup/Beaker, Water, Flat Desk
  Individual Lesson:
  • Handout: Waver Magnifier
  • Supplies (Per Group)
  1. 400 mL beaker
  2. Pencil
  3. Spoon
  4. Ruler
  5. Water
(All students need goggles and an apron)

Environmental Stewardship

Environmental Stewardship (90 – 120 Minutes)

LIGHT POLLUTION:

Overview: This interactive lab illustrates the effects of lighting on our view of the night sky and how shielding can reduce light pollution while at the same time making the lighting more effective. This is an application of light behavior and materials.

Purpose: To evaluate light shielding using materials that are transparent, translucent, and opaque materials that minimize light pollution.

Objectives: Using the materials, students will explore the “light footprint” of an unshielded light, make observations on the effect of the light, think about potential problems of an unshielded light, design a solution to solve as many of these problems as possible, then build their solution from a variety of commonly found items.

The final prototype should be used in the parking lot lights and other outdoor light fixtures on school campus.  (Must be installed by a professional)

Handouts:
Light Shield Lab Handout
Light Shielding Lesson Plan
Map for Light Shielding Activity
Light Shielding Rubric

 

 

STEM Connections

Science – The study of wave speed and wave behavior in both light and sound waves.

Technology – Interactive simulations will be used to visually analyze changes in wave speed in different media.

Engineering – Students will design apparatus to reduce light pollution and design apparatus to visually analyze changes in wave speed.

Math – Students will evaluate data sets to measure the changes in wave speed through different media

Student Handouts

Explore:

  1. Station Lab Handout (For Students): This handout provides instructions, tables (when applicable), and questions for each of the three stations (one per page)
    Wave Speed (student handout)
  2. Station Lab Instructions (For Teacher): This handout is to assist the teacher with set up and facilitation of the lab.
    Wave Speed (answer key)

Engineer:

See Environmental Stewardship Project

 

Environmental Stewardship:

  1. Light Shielding Lab: Handout for the complete activity includes teacher notes and student notes/directions.
    Light Shield Lab Handout
  2. Map: Map is for the activity on shielding.
    Map for Light Shielding Activity
  3. Teacher Lesson Plan
    Light Shielding Lesson Plan
  4. Rubric for Light Shielding Project: Rubric for the Environmental Stewardship Project
    Light Shielding Rubric

 

Explain: 

  1. Waves Power point: This is a Power point that introduces waves and then ends with wave speed in different media and refraction. (slides 13-14)
    Power Point


Evaluate:

  1. How Do Waves Interact with Pre/Post Test: This handout is contains multiple choice questions with an answer key at the end of the sheet.
    Pre and Post Test
  2. Summative Assessment: Sheet with tables, questions and areas to graph data.
    Summative Assessment
  3. Summative Assessment Key: Sheet with answers to questions and point assignments.
    Summative Assessment Key
  4. Rubric for Light Shielding Project: Rubric for the Environmental Stewardship Project
    Light Shielding Rubric

Extend:

  1. Bending Light Lab: This handout includes the link to the simulation followed by spaces to provide data, information, and drawings. There are summative questions to answer at the end.
    Bending Light Lab

Group Activity:

  1. Light Wave Quick Lab Handout: Directions, supplies, and questions for the lab.
    Light Wave Quick Lab
  2. Sound Wave Quick Lab Handout: Directions, supplies, and questions for the lab.
    Sound Wave Quick Lab

Individual Activity:

  1. Water Magnifier Lab: Handout provides directions, supplies, and questions for the lab.
    water magnifier lab

 

 

ReTeach

Small Group Learning Activity:

Group Lesson (60 Minutes)

In this Quick-Lab you will explore which mediums electromagnetic waves (EM) move fastest through by testing light wave travel through a lab desk (Solid), a cup of water (Liquid), and the air (Gas).  In this Quick-Lab you will explore which mediums mechanical waves move fastest through by testing sound wave travel through a lab desk (Solid), a cup of water (Liquid), and the air (Gas).

Group Lesson Handouts:
Sound Wave Quick Lab
Light Wave Quick La


Individual Learning Activity:

Individual Lesson (60 Minutes)

Goal: To observe how light changes as it travels through different materials by observing how the size of a pencil and spoon appears to change when the objects are submerged in a beaker of water.

Individual Lesson Handouts:
water magnifier lab

Teaching Tips

This lesson is very specific in regards to wave behavior.  While other standards address refraction this lesson and standard addresses the change in wave speed as waves move from one media to another.  This lesson should help students grasp refraction conceptually.  While we can scientifically measure this change in wave speed mathematically and experimentally, the conceptual understanding that refraction is the result of changes in wave speed is imperative.  Keep in mind that mechanical waves speed up in denser materials and electromagnetic waves slowdown in denser transparent materials. Keep this in mind when discussing trends and patterns.

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